Lectures as Smartphone Files

Jaakko Malmivuo: Bioelectromagnetism

Recorded at the Ragnar Granit Institute, Autumn 2006.

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    Lecture 1
      Intro Bioelectromagnetism, Main topics, Textbook, Interdisciplinary sciences
      1.1 - 1.2 Bioelectromagnetism, Subdivisions of bioelectromagnetism
      1.3 Bioelectric phenomena, Generation of bioelectric signals, Importance of bioelectromagnetism, Funny example
      1.4 History of bioelectromagnetism, William Gilbert, Jan Swammerdam, Luigi Galvani, Electrotherapy
      1.4.3 Hans Christian Ørstedt, Hans Berger - EEG, Magnetocardiogram, Hermann Helmholtz, Nernst equation
    Lecture 2
      I,  2.2 Anatomical basis of bioelectromagnetism, Nerve and muscle cell, Cell membrane, Motoneuron
      2.2.3 Synapse, Striated muscle, Bioelectric function, Response of the membrane potential, Conduction of nerve impulse
      3  Subthreshold membrane phenomena, Nernst equation, Electric potential and field, Nernst-Planc equation, Illustration
      3.3  The origin of resting voltage, Electric circuit of membrane, Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, Reversal voltage, Transmembrane ion flux
    Lecture 3
      3  Subthreshold membrane phenomena, Nernst equation, Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, Transmembrane ion flux
      3.6  Cable equation of the axon, Steady state response, Stimulation with step-current, Strength-duration relation
      4  Active behavior of the membrane, Voltage clamp method, Space clamp, Voltage clamp
      4.2.3  Voltage clamp, Examples, Transmembrane ion flux, Preparation of an axon, Fugu fish
      4.4  Hodgin-Huxley model, Parallel conductance model, Voltage clamp experiments, Model for potassium conductance
    Lecture 4
      4.4  Hodgkin-Huxley model, Parallel conductance model, Potassium conductance, Model for potassium conductance
      4.4.4 Sodium conductance, Model for sodium conductance, A model for channel gating
      4.4.5 Hodgin-Huxley equations, Sodium and potassium conductances, Propagating nerve impulse
      4.5  Patch clamp method, Current through a single ion channel, Modern understanding of the ionic channels
      5  Synapses, receptor cells and brain, Excitatory and inhibitory synapses, Spatial and temporal summation, Electric model of the synapse
    Lecture 5
      4.4 - 4.5 Model for potassium and sodium conductances, Nobel Prize 1991, Patch clamp method
      5  Synapses, receptor cells and brain, Reflex arch, Division of sensory and motoric functions, Cranial nerves
      6  The heart, Anatomy and physiology of the heart, Cross-section video, Striated muscle, Syncytium
      6.1  Cardiac cycle, Generation of bioelectric signal, Conduction system, Intrinsic frequency, Electrophysiology of the heart
      6.2.2 - 6.3 Total excitation of the isolated human heart, Genesis of the electrocardiogram
    Lecture 6
      II,  7.1Volume source and volume conductor
      7.2  Bioelectric source and its electric field
      7.2.2 Volume source in a homogeneous volume conductor
      7.3  The concept of modeling
      7.4  The human body as a volume conductor
      7.5  Forward and inverse problems
    Lecture 7
      7.1 - 7.3 Volume source, Piecewise homogeneous volume conductor, Green's theorem, Dipole
      III,  11.1-11.3Theoretical methods, Solid angle theorem, Double layer, Inhomogeneous double layer, Double layer sources
      11.4  Lead Vector, Ohm's Law, lead vector concept, Lead voltage between two measurement points
      11.4.3 Einthoven triangle, Burger Model, Variation of the Frank model
      11.5  Lead vector, Image surface, Points inside the image surface, Design of orthonormal lead systems
    Lecture 8
      11.2  Solid angle theorem, Double layer source, Lead vector
      11.5  Image surface, Design of orthonormal lead systems
      11.6  Lead field, Sensitivity distribution, Linearity, Superposition
      11.6.3 Reciprocity, Hermann von Helmholtz, Historical approach, Electric lead
      11.6.5 Ideal lead field, Effect of electrode configuration, Synthesizing an ideal lead field
    Lecture 9
      11.6  Review of lead field concept, Sensitivity distribution, Reciprocity and electric lead
      11.7  Gabor-Nelson theorem, Summary of the theoretical methods
      12.1 - 12.2 Biomagnetism, Equations, Biomagnetic fields
      12.3  Reciprocity theorem for magnetic fields, Equations for electric and magnetic leads
      12.4 - 12.8 Magnetic dipole moment, Ideal lead field, Synthesization of ideal magnetic lead, Radial and tangential sensitivities
    Lecture 10
      12.3  Reciprocity theorem for magnetic fields, Biomagnetic fields repeated
      12.4 - 12.9 Magnetic dipole moment, Special properties of magnetic lead fields
      12.11  Sensitivity distribution of basic magnetic leads, Magnetometers
      12.10  Independence of bioelectric and biomagnetic fields, Helmholtz theorem
      IV,  13Electroencephalograpy, EEG lead systems, Behavior of EEG signal
      14.1, 14.2 Magnetoencephalography, History, Sensitivity distribution, Axial and planar gradiometers
      14.3  Comparison of EEG and MEG half sensitivity, Electrode in the source region
      14.3, 14.4 Effect of skull resistivity, Summary.
    Lecture 11
      V,  15.112-lead ECG system, Waller, Einthoven
      15.2  ECG Signal
      15.3 - 15.5 Wilson central terminal, Goldberger leads, Precordial leads
      15.6, 15.7 Modifications of the 12-lead system, The information content of the 12 lead system
    Lecture 12
      16 - 16.2.3 VCG Lead systems, Uncorrected VCG lead systems
      16.3  Corrected VCG Systems, Frank lead system
    Lecture 13
      16.3.1 Frank lead system repeated
      16.3.2 - 16.3.5 Lead systems: McFee-Parungao, SVEC III, Gabor-Nelson
      16.4  Discussion on VCG leads
      17 - 17.4 Other lead systems, Moving dipole, Multiple-dipole model, Multipole, Clinical diagnosis
      17.4  Summary of models used
      18 - 18.3 Distortion factors in ECG, Effect of the inhomogeneities, Brody effect
    Lecture 14
      18.3 18.5 Brody effect, Direction of ventricular activation, Effect of blood resistivity
      19 19.4 The basis of ECG diagnosis, The application areas of ECG diagnosis, Electric axis of the heart, Ventricular arrhythmias
      19.5 19.7 Disorders in the activation sequence, Myocardial ischemia and infarction
      20 Magnetocardiography, History, Standard grid
    Lecture 15
      20.3 Magnetocardiography, Methods for detecting magnetic heart vector, McFee lead system, XYZ-lead system, ABC-lead system
      20.4 20.6 Sensitrivity distribution, Generation of MCG signal
      20.7 Clinical applications: Fetal MCG, DC-MCG
      20.7 General solution for the clinical application, Theoretical aspects, Helmholz's theorem
      20.7. II The electromagnetocardiography method (EMCG), Clinical study, Results
    Lecture 16
      VI,  21 Electric and magnetic stimulation, History, Applications, Taser
      22, VII, 23 Magnetic stimulation, History, Principle of magnetic stimulation, Distribution of stimulation current, Electric and magnetic stimulation of the heart, Pacemakers
      24 Cardiac defibrillation, Mechanism, Defibrillator devices
      VIII,  25.125.3Measurement of the intrinsic electric properties of biological tissues, Impedance cardiography, Signals, Origin of the impedance signal
    Lecture 17
      25.3, 25.4 Impedance cardiography, Signals, Origin of the signal
      25.4.5 25.6 Accuracy of the impedance cardiography, Other applications of impedance pletysmography
      26 Impedance tomography, Measurement methods, Image reconstruction
      27, 28 Electrodermal response, Lie detector, EOG, Electroretinogram
    Lecture 18
      Summary I Objectives, Discipline bioelectromagnetism
      Summary II Subthreshold membrane phenomena, Nerst equation, Origin of the resting voltage
      Summary III Active behavior of the membrane, Voltage clamp, Results
      Summary IV Bioelectric sources and conductors, Models
    Lecture 19
      Summary V Theoretical methods in bioelectromagnetism, Solid angle theorem, Image surface, Linearity, Superposition, Electric lead